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肉牛养殖中微生态制剂的运用研究

时间:2019-08-29 15:39作者:乐枫
本文导读:这是一篇关于肉牛养殖中微生态制剂的运用研究的文章,研究微生态制剂对肉牛生长性能、后肠道微生物数量、血清生化指标和表观消化率的影响,为微生态制剂在肉牛生产中的广泛应用提供数据支持。全文包括两个试验部分。

摘要

  疆牧区肉牛生产充分利用天然的草场优势,夏秋季节多采用放牧方式,而春冬季节转移到农作物秸秆、农副产品丰富的农耕区集约化管理,却极容易引起肠道微生物菌群体系失调,这就造成机体消化功能紊乱,阻碍肉牛的生长,增加肉牛生产成本。前人研究发现,高精料的肉牛育肥中,添加微生态制剂能改善饲料效率,提高日增重等生长性能[1-3].因此,本研究将枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillussubtilis,BS)、地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacilluslicheniformis,BL)和植物乳酸菌(Lactobacillusplantarum,LP)作为主要菌种,采用固体发酵法,研制出活菌高、质量稳定的固体微生态制剂。然后将固体微生态制剂添加到肉牛日粮中,研究微生态制剂对肉牛生长性能、后肠道微生物数量、血清生化指标和表观消化率的影响,为微生态制剂在肉牛生产中的广泛应用提供数据支持。全文包括两个试验部分。

  试验一:微生态制剂固体发酵底物的筛选、发酵条件优化及制备

  试验旨在筛选出最佳的固体发酵底物配方、发酵条件从而研制出活菌量高、质量稳定的固体微生态制剂。将已知产酶多、抗逆性强的BS和BL及产酸强的LP作为主要菌种,分别以麸皮、玉米粉、豆粕、葡萄糖、明胶等载体作为发酵底物,筛选出理想固体发酵底物配方,再通过单因素试验对上述筛选出的最佳固体发酵底物进行发酵条件的优化,得到最适的发酵温度、时间和接种量。然后分别称取上述筛选出的最佳发酵底物,添加52%左右的蒸馏水,按优化后的发酵条件分别制备出一定量BS、BL及LP的发酵产物,检测其活菌数,根据芽孢杆菌产酶量与活菌数之间呈正相关性,因此发酵产物按活菌数比例BL:BS:LP=2:2:1配合成本试验用的固体微生态制剂。结果显示:BS和BL最佳固体发酵底物配方:65%麸皮、15%豆粕、15%玉米粉、2%葡萄糖、3%明胶;LP最佳固体发酵底物配方:65%麸皮、15%豆粕、14。1%玉米面、2%葡萄糖、3%明胶、0。3%NaCl、0。2%CaCO3、0。2%MgSO4、0。2%K2HPO4。最佳发酵条件分别为:BL发酵温度为37℃、接种量为10%和发酵时间20h,最终活菌量为5×109CFU/g;BS发酵温度为37℃、接种量为10%和发酵时间22h,最终活菌量为5×109CFU/g;LP发酵温度为35℃、接种量为4%和发酵时间24h,最终活菌量为1×109CFU/g。在30℃干燥条件下,60d的保存期内活菌数无显著性变化。

  试验二:微生态制剂在肉牛中的应用

  试验旨在研究微生态制剂对肉牛生长性能、后肠道微生物数量、血清生化指标和养分表观消化率的影响。试验选取20头月龄相近的、健康的体重为(284±19。33)㎏的本地土牛和伊犁褐牛杂交代公肉牛,随机分为对照组(CG)和试验组(TG)(每组10头),分别饲喂TMR+微生态制剂的固体发酵底物和TMR+微生态制剂的固体发酵底物+微生态制剂,微生态制剂组成为BL、BS和LP为主的复合菌(BL:BS:LP=2:2:1),晨饲时单独添加到日粮中,单槽饲喂,每天一次,保证每头牛食入益生菌总数为5×1010CFU/(头·d),预试期7d,正试期30d,每天记录各组的采食量,第0d和30d分别单独称重。在第0d、15d、30d,距肛门约20cm处采集粪样,用平板计数法测定后肠道中微生物数量。在正试期内最后5d,连续采集5d的饲粮样和粪样,用酸不溶灰分(AIA)作为内源指示剂进行肉牛养分表观消化率的测定。试验结束时,每组中随机选取5头进行颈静脉采血1次。结果表明,试验组ADG、ADFI分别比对照组提高了32。58%,14。54%(P<0。05),F/G降低了13。58%(P<0。05);随着饲喂天数的增加,试验组肉牛后肠道中大肠杆菌数量显著降低(P<0。05),而乳酸杆菌在数值上比对照组提高了2。48%(P>0。05);血清指标中葡萄糖(GLU)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)和甘油三酯(TG)在数值上分别比对照组高出了20。4%、21。08%和23。53%,尿素氮(BUN)降低了1%,但都显示差异不显著(P>0。05);DM、CP、EE、NDF和ADF表观消化率均高于对照组3。36%(P<0。05)、1。9%(P>0。05)、1。49%(P>0。05)、4。46%(P>0。05)和5。11%(P>0。05)。本试验结果表明,日粮中添加5×1010CFU/(头·d)的微生态制剂能够显著提高肉牛的生长性能和DM表观消化率,显著降低后肠道大肠杆菌数量且不会对血清生化指标造成显著影响。

  综上所述,本文研制出的固体微生态制剂,活菌量高、质量稳定,然后以5×1010CFU/(头·d)添加量补充到日粮中可以提高肉牛的生长性能、养分的表观消化率和降低后肠道大肠杆菌的数量。

河南快三开奖结果   关键词:微生态制剂;肉牛;生长性能;表观消化率;血清生化指标;

肉牛

Abstract

河南快三开奖结果   The beef cattle production in Xinjiang pastoral areas takes full advantage of natural pastures, and grazing methods are used in summer and autumn.While in spring and winter, the intensive management of rich agricultural crops and farms and byproducts in farming areas is very easy to cause imbalance of the intestinal microflora system, which leads to the body's disorders of digestion, obstructs the growth of beef cattle, and increases the cost of beef production. The previous studies found that the addition of probiotics can improve feed efficiency and increase daily growth performance in beef cattle fattening of high concentrates.Therefore, Bacillus subtilis (BS), Bacillus licheniformis (BL) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) are the main strains in this study. Using solid fermentation method, a solid micro-ecological preparation with high viable count and stable quality is developed. The solid microecological preparations are then added to the beef cattle diet to study the effects of the microecological preparations on the growth performance, number of post-intestinal microbiota, serum biochemical indicators and apparent digestibility of the beef cattle, and to provide data support for the wide application of the microecological preparations in beef cattle production. The full text includes two sections.

  The experiment 1 aims to screen out the best solid fermentation substrate formulation, fermentation conditions, and develop a solid microbial product with high live bacteria and stable quality。 The main strains were BS and BL, which are known to produce many enzymes and have strong resistance, and strong acid-producing LP。 Bran, corn meal, soybean meal, glucose, gelatin and other carriers were used as fermentation substrates to screen ideal solid state fermentations。 The substrate formulation was then subjected to optimization of the fermentation conditions by the single factor test on the best solid fermentation substrate selected above to obtain the optimum fermentation temperature, time and inoculum size。 The experiment aims to screen out the best solid fermentation substrate formulation, fermentation conditions, and develop a solid microbial product with high live bacteria and stable quality。 The main strains were BS and BL, which are known to produce many enzymes and have strong resistance, and strong acid-producing LP。 Bran, corn meal, soybean meal, glucose, gelatin and other carriers were used as fermentation substrates to screen ideal solid state fermentations。 The substrate formulation was then subjected to optimization of the fermentation conditions by the single factor test on the best solid fermentation substrate selected above to obtain the optimum fermentation temperature, time and inoculum size。Then, the above-selected optimal solid substrate was precisely weighed, and about 52% of distilled water was added to prepare a certain amount of fermentation products of BS, BL, and LP, and the number of viable cells was detected。 The amount of enzyme and the amount of viable cells were determined according to Bacillus。 There was a positive correlation between them, so the proportion of viable cells of the fermentation product was (BL:BS:LP=2:2:1) in combination with the solid probiotics used in the test。 The results showed that: BS and BL of best solid fermentation substrate formulations: 65% wheat bran, 15% soybean meal, 15% corn flour, 2% glucose, 3% gelatin; LP of best solid fermentation substrate formula: 65% bran, 15% soybean meal, 14。1% corn flour, 2% glucose, 3% gelatin, 0。3% NaCl, 0。2% CaCO3, 0。2% MgSO4, 0。2% K2HPO4。 The best fermentation conditions were that the BL of fermentation temperature was determined to be 37 °C, the inoculation amount was 10%, the fermentation time was 20 hours, the live bacteria amount was 5×109 CFU/g; BS of fermentation temperature was determined to be 37 °C, the inoculum amount was 10%, the fermentation time was 22 hours, the live bacteria amount was 5 × 109 CFU/g。 The LP of fermentation temperature was 35 °C, the inoculum amount was 4%, the fermentation time was 24 hours, and the live bacteria amount was 1×109 CFU/g。 Under the 30 °C drying condition, there was no significant change in the number of viable cells during the 60 d storage period。

  Experiment 2 aimed to study the effects of probiotics on the growth performance, number of post-intestinal microbiota, serum biochemical parameters and apparent digestibility in beef cattle。 A 20-month-old, healthy, cross-breeding beef cattle of Kazakh and Yili brown cattle with a healthy body weight of (284±19。33) kg was randomly divided into a control group (CG) and a test group (TG) (10 in each group)。 The control group (CG) and test group (TG) were fed with Total Mixed Ration (TMR) + Solid substrate of probiotics and TMR+ Solid substrate of probiotics + probiotics consisting of Bacillus licheniformis (BL), Bacillus subtilis (BS) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) to the diet, respective ratio is (BL: BS: LP =2: 2: 1)。 At the time of morning feeding, it is added to the diet alone and fed in a single tank once a day, ensure that the total number of probiotics into each cow fed 5×1010 CFU/(head·d)。 The adaption period lasted for 7 days and the formal trial period lasted for 30 days, 0 and 30th days were weighed separately。 The daily feed intake of each group was recorded。 At day 0d, 15d, and 30d, fecal samples were collected about 20 cm from the anus, and the number of microbes in the intestine was determined by plate count。 In the last 5 days of the formal trial period, feed and fecal samples were collected, and the apparent digestibility of beef cattle was determined by using acid-insoluble ash(AIA) as the endogenous indicator。At the end of the test, 5 cows were randomly selected for jugular vein blood sampling only once in each group。 The results showed that the ADG and ADFI of the test group were increased by 32。58% and 14。54% (P<0。05), F/G was decreased by 13。58% (P<0。05)。 With the increase of feeding days, the number of E。 coli in the intestine of the experimental group was significantly decreased (P<0。05), while that of Lactobacillus was 2。48% higher than that of the control group (P>0。05)。 The serum Glucose (GLU) and alkaline phosphatase were higher than the control group。 (AKP) and triglyceride (TG) values were 20。4%, 21。08%, and 23。53% higher than those in the control group respectively, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was decreased by 1%, But all show no significant difference (P>0。05)。 The apparent digestibility of DM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF was higher than that of the control group 3。36%, (P<0。05), 1。9% (P>0。05), 1。49% (P>0。05), 4。46% (P>0。05), and 5。11% (P>0。05)。 In summary, the test results showed that dietary supplementation of a certain amount of probiotics on the growth performance and DM apparent digestibility of beef cattle had a significantly promoting role, significantly reduced the number of post-intestinal E。 coli and did not significantly affect the serum biochemical parameters。

  In conclusion, the solid probiotics developed in this paper have high viable bacteria and stable quality. Supplementation to the diet with 5×1010 CFU/(head·d) can increase the growth performance and nutrients of beef cattle. The apparent digestibility and the number of post-intestinal E. coli

  Key words: probiotics; beef cattle; growth performance; serum biochemical parameters; nutrient apparent digestibility

目 录

  第一章 绪 论

  1 选题的目的及意义

  新疆牧区肉牛生产是充分利用天然草场而形成的,放牧作为主要生产模式,而农耕 区舍饲为主,以农副产品和农作物秸秆为主要饲草来源,随着这种区域化布局的显现, 为实现农牧区的优势互补,形成了架子牛异地肥育模式,即犊牛期或架子牛期在天然草 场区放牧饲养,然后再转到农耕区集约化管理,采用全舍饲高精料饲养,体重达 400-450kg 以上出售屠宰,这种"牧繁农育"的发展模式,是新疆牛肉生产的主要模式, 可在较小投入的情况下提高农牧民的收入,又可利用补偿生长提高育肥场的经济效益。 但是转移到农耕区的这种集约化管理,极容易引起肠道微生物菌群体系失调,这就造成 了机体消化功能紊乱,阻碍肉牛的生长,延长育肥周期和增加生产成本。而根据前人的 研究发现,肉牛高精料育肥时,添加微生态制剂能改善饲料效率,提高日增重等生长性 能[1-3].因此本研究将已知的三种有益菌种,以麸皮、玉米粉、豆粕、葡萄糖、明胶等载 体作为固体发酵底物,筛选出理想固体培养基的组成和比例后,采取单因素试验对发酵 底物进一步优化出最佳的发酵条件,从而研制出高活菌量的固体微生态制剂,添加到肉 牛日粮中,研究此固体微生态制剂对肉牛生长性能、后肠道微生物数量、血清生化指标 和表观消化率的影响,为微生态制剂在肉牛生产中的广泛应用提供数据支持,这对于畜 牧业生产具有深远的现实意义。

【由于本篇文章为硕士论文,如需全文请点击底部下载全文链接】

  2 微生态制剂研究现状
  2.1 微生态制剂生产概况
  2.2 组成微生态制剂的益生菌种类
  2.3 微生态制剂的作用机理
  2.4 微生态制剂在反刍动物中应用的方法

  3 微生态制剂在反刍动物生产中的应用进展
  3.1 微生态制剂在瘤胃中的作用模式
  3.2 微生态制剂在后瘤胃肠道(gastro-intestinal tract, GIT)中的作用模式
  3.3 微生态制剂在犊牛上应用进展
  3.4 微生态制剂在成年反刍动物中应用

  4 论文研究内容与技术路线
  4.1 研究内容
  4.2 研究技术路线

  第二章 试验研究试验
  一 微生态制剂固体发酵底物的筛选、条件优化及制备
  1 试验材料
  1.1 试验菌种
  1.2 培养基
  1.3 主要仪器设备

  2 试验方法
  2.1 菌液的制备
  2.2 固体发酵底物的筛选
  2.3 发酵条件的优化
  2.4 干燥温度、微生态制剂产品的制备及保存期的确定

  3 结 果
  3.1 固体发酵底物的筛选
  3.2 发酵条件的优化
  3.3 干燥和储存试验
  4 讨 论
河南快三开奖结果   5 小 结试验

  二 微生态制剂对肉牛生长性能、后肠道微生物数量、血清生化指标和养分表观消化率的影响
  1 材料与方法
  1.1 试验材料
  1.2 试验动物与饲粮
  1.3 试验设计
  1.4 试验动物的饲养管理
  1.5 测定指标和方法
  1.6 数据统计

  2 结 果
  2.1 微生态制剂对肉牛生长性能的影响
  2.2 微生态制剂对肉牛后肠道微生物数量的影响
  2.3 微生态制剂对肉牛血清生化指标的影响
  2.4 微生态制剂对肉牛日粮营养物质消化率的影响

  3 讨 论
  3.1 微生态制剂对肉牛生长性能的影响
  3.2 微生态制剂对肉牛后肠道微生物数量的影响
  3.3 微生态制剂对肉牛血清生化指标的影响
  3.4 微生态制剂对肉牛日粮营养物质表观消化率的影响
  4 小 结

  第三章 论文结论与创新点

  1 论文结论

  本文研究了微生态制剂的制备及其对肉牛生长性能、后肠道微生物数量、血清生化 指标和表观消化率的影响,试验条件下,得到如下结论

  (1)通过对固体发酵底物的筛选,确定 BS 和 BL 最佳养基配方为:65%麸皮、15% 豆粕、15%玉米面、2%葡萄糖、3%明胶;LP 最佳养基配方为:65%麸皮、15%豆粕、 14。1%玉米面、2%葡萄糖、3%明胶、0。3%NaCl、0。2%CaCO3、0。2%MgSO4、0。2% K2HPO4。然后采取单因素对上述底物配方的发酵条件进一步的优化后,确定 BL 的发酵 温度为 37 ℃、接种量为 10%,发酵时间 20 h,活菌量达到 5×109CFU/g;确定 BS 的发 酵温度为 37 ℃、接种量为 10%,发酵时间 22 h,活菌量为 5×109CFU/g;确定 LP 的发 酵温度为 35 ℃、接种量为 4%,发酵时间 24 h,活菌量为 109CFU/g。在 30 ℃干燥条件 下,60 d 的保存期内活菌量无显著性变化。

  (2)饲粮中添加含量为 5×1010CFU/(头·d)的活菌制剂,可以显著提高肉牛平均 日增重、平均日采食量和干物质表观消化率,显著降低料重比和后肠道中大肠杆菌数量, 改善 CP、EE、NDF 和 ADF 的消化能力,而对血清生化指标没有显著影响

  2 创新点

  (1)本论文研制出了以 BS、BL 和 LP 等益生菌为主要菌种的固体微生态制剂并完 善了发酵工艺,活菌数高,质量稳定,抗逆性强;

  (2)经试验证实了此微生态制剂能够显著提高肉牛平均日增重 32。58%,显著降低 后肠道中大肠杆菌数量。

  3 尚待解决的问题

河南快三开奖结果   微生态制剂活菌数检测时采用平板计数法,比较传统,并且具有一定的滞后性,科 学有效的检测方法尚待解决。

  参考文献
  致 谢

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